Struct gtk::Builder

source · []
#[repr(transparent)]
pub struct Builder { /* private fields */ }
Expand description

A GtkBuilder is an auxiliary object that reads textual descriptions of a user interface and instantiates the described objects. To create a GtkBuilder from a user interface description, call gtk_builder_new_from_file(), from_resource() or from_string().

In the (unusual) case that you want to add user interface descriptions from multiple sources to the same GtkBuilder you can call new() to get an empty builder and populate it by (multiple) calls to gtk_builder_add_from_file(), BuilderExtManual::add_from_resource() or BuilderExtManual::add_from_string().

A GtkBuilder holds a reference to all objects that it has constructed and drops these references when it is finalized. This finalization can cause the destruction of non-widget objects or widgets which are not contained in a toplevel window. For toplevel windows constructed by a builder, it is the responsibility of the user to call gtk_widget_destroy() to get rid of them and all the widgets they contain.

The functions gtk_builder_get_object() and BuilderExt::objects() can be used to access the widgets in the interface by the names assigned to them inside the UI description. Toplevel windows returned by these functions will stay around until the user explicitly destroys them with gtk_widget_destroy(). Other widgets will either be part of a larger hierarchy constructed by the builder (in which case you should not have to worry about their lifecycle), or without a parent, in which case they have to be added to some container to make use of them. Non-widget objects need to be reffed with g_object_ref() to keep them beyond the lifespan of the builder.

The function gtk_builder_connect_signals() and variants thereof can be used to connect handlers to the named signals in the description.

GtkBuilder UI Definitions # {BUILDER-UI}

GtkBuilder parses textual descriptions of user interfaces which are specified in an XML format which can be roughly described by the RELAX NG schema below. We refer to these descriptions as “GtkBuilder UI definitions” or just “UI definitions” if the context is clear. Do not confuse GtkBuilder UI Definitions with [GtkUIManager UI Definitions][XML-UI], which are more limited in scope. It is common to use .ui as the filename extension for files containing GtkBuilder UI definitions.

RELAX NG Compact Syntax

The toplevel element is <interface>. It optionally takes a “domain” attribute, which will make the builder look for translated strings using dgettext() in the domain specified. This can also be done by calling BuilderExt::set_translation_domain() on the builder. Objects are described by <object> elements, which can contain <property> elements to set properties, <signal> elements which connect signals to handlers, and <child> elements, which describe child objects (most often widgets inside a container, but also e.g. actions in an action group, or columns in a tree model). A <child> element contains an <object> element which describes the child object. The target toolkit version(s) are described by <requires> elements, the “lib” attribute specifies the widget library in question (currently the only supported value is “gtk+”) and the “version” attribute specifies the target version in the form <major>`.`<minor>. The builder will error out if the version requirements are not met.

Typically, the specific kind of object represented by an <object> element is specified by the “class” attribute. If the type has not been loaded yet, GTK+ tries to find the get_type() function from the class name by applying heuristics. This works in most cases, but if necessary, it is possible to specify the name of the get_type() function explictly with the “type-func” attribute. As a special case, GtkBuilder allows to use an object that has been constructed by a GtkUIManager in another part of the UI definition by specifying the id of the GtkUIManager in the “constructor” attribute and the name of the object in the “id” attribute.

Objects may be given a name with the “id” attribute, which allows the application to retrieve them from the builder with gtk_builder_get_object(). An id is also necessary to use the object as property value in other parts of the UI definition. GTK+ reserves ids starting and ending with ___ (3 underscores) for its own purposes.

Setting properties of objects is pretty straightforward with the <property> element: the “name” attribute specifies the name of the property, and the content of the element specifies the value. If the “translatable” attribute is set to a true value, GTK+ uses gettext() (or dgettext() if the builder has a translation domain set) to find a translation for the value. This happens before the value is parsed, so it can be used for properties of any type, but it is probably most useful for string properties. It is also possible to specify a context to disambiguate short strings, and comments which may help the translators.

GtkBuilder can parse textual representations for the most common property types: characters, strings, integers, floating-point numbers, booleans (strings like “TRUE”, “t”, “yes”, “y”, “1” are interpreted as true, strings like “FALSE”, “f”, “no”, “n”, “0” are interpreted as false), enumerations (can be specified by their name, nick or integer value), flags (can be specified by their name, nick, integer value, optionally combined with “|”, e.g. “GTK_VISIBLE|GTK_REALIZED”) and colors (in a format understood by gdk::RGBA::parse()).

GVariants can be specified in the format understood by g_variant_parse(), and pixbufs can be specified as a filename of an image file to load.

Objects can be referred to by their name and by default refer to objects declared in the local xml fragment and objects exposed via BuilderExt::expose_object(). In general, GtkBuilder allows forward references to objects — declared in the local xml; an object doesn’t have to be constructed before it can be referred to. The exception to this rule is that an object has to be constructed before it can be used as the value of a construct-only property.

It is also possible to bind a property value to another object’s property value using the attributes “bind-source” to specify the source object of the binding, “bind-property” to specify the source property and optionally “bind-flags” to specify the binding flags. Internally builder implements this using GBinding objects. For more information see [ObjectExtManual::bind_property()][crate::glib::prelude::ObjectExtManual::bind_property()]

Signal handlers are set up with the <signal> element. The “name” attribute specifies the name of the signal, and the “handler” attribute specifies the function to connect to the signal. By default, GTK+ tries to find the handler using g_module_symbol(), but this can be changed by passing a custom GtkBuilderConnectFunc to [BuilderExtManual::connect_signals_full()][crate::prelude::BuilderExtManual::connect_signals_full()]. The remaining attributes, “after”, “swapped” and “object”, have the same meaning as the corresponding parameters of the g_signal_connect_object() or g_signal_connect_data() functions. A “last_modification_time” attribute is also allowed, but it does not have a meaning to the builder.

Sometimes it is necessary to refer to widgets which have implicitly been constructed by GTK+ as part of a composite widget, to set properties on them or to add further children (e.g. the vbox of a Dialog). This can be achieved by setting the “internal-child” property of the <child> element to a true value. Note that GtkBuilder still requires an <object> element for the internal child, even if it has already been constructed.

A number of widgets have different places where a child can be added (e.g. tabs vs. page content in notebooks). This can be reflected in a UI definition by specifying the “type” attribute on a <child> The possible values for the “type” attribute are described in the sections describing the widget-specific portions of UI definitions.

A GtkBuilder UI Definition

⚠️ The following code is in xml ⚠️

<interface>
  <object class="GtkDialog" id="dialog1">
    <child internal-child="vbox">
      <object class="GtkBox" id="vbox1">
        <property name="border-width">10</property>
        <child internal-child="action_area">
          <object class="GtkButtonBox" id="hbuttonbox1">
            <property name="border-width">20</property>
            <child>
              <object class="GtkButton" id="ok_button">
                <property name="label">gtk-ok</property>
                <property name="use-stock">TRUE</property>
                <signal name="clicked" handler="ok_button_clicked"/>
              </object>
            </child>
          </object>
        </child>
      </object>
    </child>
  </object>
</interface>

Beyond this general structure, several object classes define their own XML DTD fragments for filling in the ANY placeholders in the DTD above. Note that a custom element in a <child> element gets parsed by the custom tag handler of the parent object, while a custom element in an <object> element gets parsed by the custom tag handler of the object.

These XML fragments are explained in the documentation of the respective objects.

Additionally, since 3.10 a special <template> tag has been added to the format allowing one to define a widget class’s components. See the [GtkWidget documentation][composite-templates] for details.

Implements

BuilderExt, glib::ObjectExt, BuilderExtManual

Implementations

Creates a new empty builder object.

This function is only useful if you intend to make multiple calls to gtk_builder_add_from_file(), BuilderExtManual::add_from_resource() or BuilderExtManual::add_from_string() in order to merge multiple UI descriptions into a single builder.

Most users will probably want to use gtk_builder_new_from_file(), from_resource() or from_string().

Returns

a new (empty) Builder object

Builds the [GtkBuilder UI definition][BUILDER-UI] at resource_path.

If there is an error locating the resource or parsing the description, then the program will be aborted.

resource_path

a GResource resource path

Returns

a Builder containing the described interface

Builds the user interface described by string (in the [GtkBuilder UI definition][BUILDER-UI] format).

If string is None-terminated, then length should be -1. If length is not -1, then it is the length of string.

If there is an error parsing string then the program will be aborted. You should not attempt to parse user interface description from untrusted sources.

string

a user interface (XML) description

length

the length of string, or -1

Returns

a Builder containing the interface described by string

Trait Implementations

Returns a copy of the value. Read more

Performs copy-assignment from source. Read more

Formats the value using the given formatter. Read more

Returns the “default value” for a type. Read more

Formats the value using the given formatter. Read more

Feeds this value into the given Hasher. Read more

Feeds a slice of this type into the given Hasher. Read more

This method returns an Ordering between self and other. Read more

Compares and returns the maximum of two values. Read more

Compares and returns the minimum of two values. Read more

Restrict a value to a certain interval. Read more

This method tests for self and other values to be equal, and is used by ==. Read more

This method tests for !=.

This method returns an ordering between self and other values if one exists. Read more

This method tests less than (for self and other) and is used by the < operator. Read more

This method tests less than or equal to (for self and other) and is used by the <= operator. Read more

This method tests greater than (for self and other) and is used by the > operator. Read more

This method tests greater than or equal to (for self and other) and is used by the >= operator. Read more

Returns the type identifier of Self.

Auto Trait Implementations

Blanket Implementations

Gets the TypeId of self. Read more

Immutably borrows from an owned value. Read more

Mutably borrows from an owned value. Read more

Upcasts an object to a superclass or interface T. Read more

Upcasts an object to a reference of its superclass or interface T. Read more

Tries to downcast to a subclass or interface implementor T. Read more

Tries to downcast to a reference of its subclass or interface implementor T. Read more

Tries to cast to an object of type T. This handles upcasting, downcasting and casting between interface and interface implementors. All checks are performed at runtime, while downcast and upcast will do many checks at compile-time already. Read more

Tries to cast to reference to an object of type T. This handles upcasting, downcasting and casting between interface and interface implementors. All checks are performed at runtime, while downcast and upcast will do many checks at compile-time already. Read more

Casts to T unconditionally. Read more

Casts to &T unconditionally. Read more

Performs the conversion.

Performs the conversion.

Returns true if the object is an instance of (can be cast to) T.

Returns the type of the object.

Returns the ObjectClass of the object. Read more

Returns the class of the object.

Returns the class of the object in the given type T. Read more

Returns the interface T of the object. Read more

Similar to Self::set_property but fails instead of panicking.

Sets the property property_name of the object to value value. Read more

Similar to Self::set_property but fails instead of panicking.

Sets the property property_name of the object to value value. Read more

Similar to Self::set_properties but fails instead of panicking.

Sets multiple properties of the object at once. Read more

Similar to Self::set_properties_from_value but fails instead of panicking.

Sets multiple properties of the object at once. Read more

Similar to Self::property but fails instead of panicking.

Gets the property property_name of the object and cast it to the type V. Read more

Similar to Self::property_value but fails instead of panicking.

Gets the property property_name of the object. Read more

Check if the object has a property property_name of the given type_. Read more

Get the type of the property property_name of this object. Read more

Get the ParamSpec of the property property_name of this object.

Return all ParamSpec of the properties of this object.

Freeze all property notifications until the return guard object is dropped. Read more

Set arbitrary data on this object with the given key. Read more

Return previously set arbitrary data of this object with the given key. Read more

Retrieve previously set arbitrary data of this object with the given key. Read more

Set arbitrary data on this object with the given key. Read more

Return previously set arbitrary data of this object with the given key. Read more

Retrieve previously set arbitrary data of this object with the given key. Read more

Block a given signal handler. Read more

Unblock a given signal handler.

Stop emission of the currently emitted signal.

Stop emission of the currently emitted signal by the (possibly detailed) signal name.

Similar to Self::connect but fails instead of panicking.

Connect to the signal signal_name on this object. Read more

Similar to Self::connect_id but fails instead of panicking.

Connect to the signal signal_id on this object. Read more

Similar to Self::connect_local but fails instead of panicking.

Connect to the signal signal_name on this object. Read more

Similar to Self::connect_local_id but fails instead of panicking.

Connect to the signal signal_id on this object. Read more

Similar to Self::connect_unsafe but fails instead of panicking.

Connect to the signal signal_name on this object. Read more

Similar to Self::connect_unsafe_id but fails instead of panicking.

Similar to Self::connect_closure but fails instead of panicking.

Connect a closure to the signal signal_name on this object. Read more

Similar to Self::connect_closure_id but fails instead of panicking.

Connect a closure to the signal signal_id on this object. Read more

Limits the lifetime of closure to the lifetime of the object. When the object’s reference count drops to zero, the closure will be invalidated. An invalidated closure will ignore any calls to Closure::invoke. Read more

Connect to the signal signal_id on this object. Read more

Similar to Self::emit but fails instead of panicking.

Emit signal by signal id. Read more

Similar to Self::emit_with_values but fails instead of panicking.

Same as Self::emit but takes Value for the arguments.

Similar to Self::emit_by_name but fails instead of panicking.

Emit signal by its name. Read more

Similar to Self::emit_by_name_with_values but fails instead of panicking.

Emit signal by its name. Read more

Similar to Self::emit_with_details but fails instead of panicking.

Emit signal by signal id with details. Read more

Similar to Self::emit_with_details_and_values but fails instead of panicking.

Emit signal by signal id with details. Read more

Disconnect a previously connected signal handler.

Connect to the notify signal of the object. Read more

Connect to the notify signal of the object. Read more

Connect to the notify signal of the object. Read more

Notify that the given property has changed its value. Read more

Notify that the given property has changed its value. Read more

Downgrade this object to a weak reference.

Bind property source_property on this object to the target_property on the target object. Read more

Returns the strong reference count of this object.

The resulting type after obtaining ownership.

Creates owned data from borrowed data, usually by cloning. Read more

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (toowned_clone_into)

Uses borrowed data to replace owned data, usually by cloning. Read more

Returns a SendValue clone of self.

Converts the given value to a String. Read more

The type returned in the event of a conversion error.

Performs the conversion.

The type returned in the event of a conversion error.

Performs the conversion.